3D object recognition
In the foundation of 3DPass lies an open source objects recognition technology including various of fundamental-research-based algorithms created by our team and community members. The algorithms ecpecially have been adapted to work within blockchain inviroment which doesn't provide any feedback to compare objects to one another while the processing is going on. Mostly, it caused by the absence of trusted backend, since the blockchain architecture implies the equal nodes to be owned by users, who don't trust to each other. So that any object, event or transaction must be proved by math calculations performing off-line. The first algorithm called Grid2d is designed to recognize 3D objects shape. It was suggested by Michael Co in 2020 as a response to the Real world objects digital transformation challenge. The implementation of those alghorithms is pass3d recognition toolkit which is free to download and it serves as a significant part of Proof of Scan p2p network consensus used in 3DPass blockchain decentralized platform.
- pass3d recognition toolkit captures some distinctive properties of the object shape and produces its digital identity named HASH ID, which would remain stable no matter how many different 3D scans of the same object had been processed. It allows to establish one-to-one correspondence between the object and its digital asset, which conventional NFT doesn't. Learn this huge difference >>.
- For example, if you have made 10 or more equal quality 3D scans of the same object, then you can process all of them by 3DPass, and outcoming HASH IDs would match continiously.
- The recognition algorithm Grid2d is flexible enough to adjust the definition level of processing to the 3D scanning resolution or accuracy of 3D model. It allows to define the asset property rights border and to distinguish whether or not the particular object is considered real or fake.
- HASH ID provides excellent level of privacy containing "0 knowlege" of the object it was produced from. The object's seed data is protected by cryptographic standard SHA-256. 3DPass never collects any user's data, all the calculations needed to produce HASH ID perform offline on the user's device and utilizes RAM only.
- However, it's understood that we are able to distinguish 3D objects as much as their shape uniqueness. And either the scanning quality and app settings also matter. Learn more about HASH ID strength >>
- What would be recognized next?
Learn the difference between sustainable unique identity HASH ID and conventional NFT based on cryptocurrency wallet signature:
Multi object options
You can create a unique sustainable identity (HASH ID) using not only one seed object, but also a combination of several ones instead. Either the object shape, combined with its additional properties (size, weight, density, clarity, owner's biometric data, etc.), or just a bunch of different-shaped 3D objects might be chosen. That complex HASH ID, produced from a multi seed, becomes much more secured against the attack by means of multi-factor authentication. This option, as well, helps us to capture a few different properties inherent to the object. Let's, check out some examples:
- Piece of rock + Owner's fingerprint ->> HASH-ID 1
- 3D object shape + Its weight ->> Hash-ID 2
- Object_1 shape + Object_2 shape ->> Hash-ID 3
In this example:
- 3D Object is "something that you have" factor
- Fingerprint is "something that you are" factor
- PIN code or password or special movement or what so ever might be added as "something that you know" factor as well
Proof of Scan protocol
Proof of Scan is a revolutionary decentralized protocol, which is leveraged not only as 3DPass blockchain network consensus, but also designed to prevent digital assets from copying. All of those assets present nothing, but endless of kinds of objects tokenized, such as: 3D objects, 2D drawings, melodies, voices, radio signals, and so on. Due to the recognition technology the protocol is based on, this novel approach unfolds the access to potential trillions in deals all over the globe.
"One object = One asset" rule
The first and the most important PoScan (Proof of Scan) rule states "1 object = 1 asset", which refers to the recognition algorithm being used instead of some usual hash function like SHA256. As such, Grid2d algorithm is leveraged for 3D object recognition in 3DPass.
Block production (Mining)
3DPass exploits PoW (Proof of Work) concept for the block production, due to the fact that the recognition always takes computing power for the objects to get veryfied. In Proof of Scan 3D object ( in obj. format) is used as a "nonce". And so, miners are picking up a unique-shaped 3D object the HASH ID
of which, being sealed to the parent block hash with SHA256, would make Grid2d recognition algorithm produce a specific output ( the hash value below the limit called "Difficulty") like
000000...". Learn >> how to mine 3DPass coin
Object authenticity and block verification
The network will always agree upon the state of whether or not each one object tokenized is considered to be original. It serves as an object authentication service provided by one layer of equal nodes.
Use 3DPass mobile wallet to verify Proof of Scan to work.
Deterministic blockchain finality
Proof of Scan implmementation is equipped with GRANDPA finality gadget which is guaranteed for blocks to reach finality in opposite to probabilistic finality (e.x. Nakamoto protocol which first was applied in Bitcoin). PoA (Proof of Authority) concept is being used for block finalization. There is an Authority set called Validators consisting of the most reliable nodes thoroughly selected from miners. They vote upon Best chain and, after the voting is complete, there is going to be no chance for the finalized chain to get reorganized (2/3 + 1 positive votes is enough to make the final decision)
Read this article to learn more about how Proof of Scan can be compared to conventional PoW (Proof of Work). Follow either the full protocol description or White paper to get some detailed information.
The Ledger of Unique Things
3DPass decentralized p2p platform represents Layer 1 blockchain, the Nodes of which will prevent assets form copying, even if you change its model with one dot, pixel or one byte. We call it "The Ledger of Unique Things".
The platform provides the ability to develop the endless of useful smart contracts and dApps the logic of which would be tightly tethered to something we use in life. Every object, transformed by 3DPass, acquires its own unique and sustainable identity called HASH ID which serves to be as 1:1 correspondence between the object and its asset.
- Network telemetry server
- Block explorer
- Block explorer API
- 3DPass Web3 wallet | polkadot js wallet
- How to start mining
- How to become a Validator
- Smart contracts trait leveraging ink, a Rust-based embedded domain specific language (eDSL) for writing WebAssembly smart contracts.
- Governance and forkless upgrade, On-chain Identity
- Substrate-based and scalable solution: IPFS storage, Smart contracts, etc. Learn more about 3DPass network NODE integration
Smart Contracts and dApps
Substrate Smart contract trait using ink, a Rust-based embedded domain specific language (eDSL) for writing WebAssembly smart contracts. Learn more about how it compares to Solidity. Follow the guiudelines to run your smart contract on 3DPass.
Coming soon! EVM emulator pallet, which allows for unmodified EVM code to be executed on 3DPass blockchain. This feature is designed to closely emulate the functionality of executing contracts on the Ethereum mainnet within 3DPass network.
There is an alternative approach to implementation and execution of custom business logic called Runtime development, which allows for creation of custom "pallets" leveraging network events as a trigger. Custom pallet would provide a logic "what to do on new block initialization or finalization, storage changes, transaction status changes, etc." It might, as well, be equipped with RPC API calls to interact with and off-chain worker possibilities. Use Substrate documentation for more details. Compare >> Smart Contracts VS Runtime development
In order to implement a custom pallet into 3DPass runtime Pull request is required.
As an example of leveraging the runtime development, 3DPass has integrated a pallet called "Assets" providing useful methods for dealing with simple fungible assets without a necessity to run a smart contract.
Tokenization of real and virtual 3D objects
The only difference between tokenization process of either real or virtual 3D objects is the way you are getting seed data to create HASH ID out of. Dealing with virtual ones, there is no problem to get 3D model and other properties, since they are initially digital. Howener, seed data extraction out of real 3D objects takes efforts and is not always possible because of nowadays limited technological capabilities. On top of it, the utilization of tokens, produced out of virtual objects, might be the way different due to the "virtual" material they are created from. There is no fungibility restrictions, no proof of exisctence problems, etc.
Tokenization of real world objects
Using a smartphone camera or professional scanners and lab measurements (depends on how much precision do you need), you can extract some seed data from a real 3D object which is, basically, a 3D scan ( .stl or .obj standards are supported). And then, by means of using pass3d recognition toolkit, you can produce its HASH ID, as long as the object has a solid shape. Flexible ones won't work because their shape is unstable and might not be recognized by 3DPass. However, there is a possibility to tokenize a 3D model of flexible things (ex. clothes) in one state (ex. a t-shirt put on a mannequin) and then use it as the standard for Machine Learning recognition.
For example, you can tokenize a rough diamond and then divide it by carats in digital and trade the carats on the market. And if you put in an owner's fingerprint and create a complex HASH ID from both the fingetprint and the diamond's properties (shape, weight, clarity, etc), then you'll have a personal digital asset. Now, not only the diamond is able to recognize but also its owner, so all the property rights might be followed.
However, all the initial seed data of the asset remains private, unless the owner would reveal it themself (in the case described above it's original data of both fingerprint and the diamond shape + its additional properties). It's "hidden behind the HASH ID" which is suppose to be public since it's strong enough to stand against the attack attempting to reconstruct the seed data. At least, the HASH ID is protected by multi-factor authentication:
Tokenization of virtual objects
As it was mentioned above, there is no problem to extract seed data if you are dealing with virtual 3D objects. All you need to do is to get 3D model (.stl or .obj) + additional property values and process them via 3Dpass recognition toolkit. After HASH ID is produced, there is no restrictions related to physical object. Therefore, you can use your asset what eveter you like, although it would've never been possible to do the same in real world.
For example, you can tokenize a virtual diamond and then leverage it as a fungible token or you can get it melted within the virtual space such as: metaverse, augmented reality, gaming, etc.
Tokenization of the object shape changes (in dinamic)
One of the most important options to acknowledge about tokenization is that you can capture the object shape changes in dinamic. Not only static option is avalable. Let's imagine the case of a car accident. A car had its original 3D shape and then it was damaged, although the asset is still the same. The car's owner has not been changed as well. Assuming the car had its HASH ID saved on 3DPass dezentralized ledger before the accident, the owner can create a new HASH ID and link it to the former one in the transaction. As a result we have a sequence of assets linked together on a blockchain which represents the object shape changes in dinamic.
Property rights definition
Adjust the algorithm's recognition parameters to define the ownership rights border which would distinguish the real asset from the fake ones. In order to create a personal asset use the biometric data with multi-object options.
- NFT (non-fungible tokens)
- Added reality
- Jewelry and Art
- Real estate and construction
- Health care
Passwords and keys creation & recovery
One of the sideways of 3DPass technology aplication is passwords and keys creation and its recovery by means of 3D scanning the object. And, of course, Multi object option is supposed to be used. To say, there is a similarity to the wide spread "brain wallet" technology providing the ability to recover your crypto wallet keys with the backup "seed phrase". 3DPass exploits the same idea with the only difference of 3D object shape provides the seed data instead. In combination with owner's biometric data or any additional properties, this complex HASH ID, made out of several objects, becomes quite resistant against the attack and has its own advantages, such as:
- Resistant data carrier might be chosen for a seed. Ex. a piece of rock won't have any damage after being several months under the solar radiation, water, electromagnetic radiation, temperature (-100C +500C), etc. A piece of paper or flash memory drive would be completely damaged at the same circumstances.
- Human factor protection might be applied. Ex. there's no possibility to put any changes into the seed data without deforming the real object if it was picked up as a seed. Comparing to the back up phrase, people have direct access to the data and might damage it by accident while copy and paste or what ever. Unfortunately, this is a really common case.
- Quick copy protection might be leveraged. Ex. It takes time to scan a real 3D object much more than just to grab a photo of which, meaning the piece of paper or a tablet screen is easy to take capture from.
- Cryptocurrency wallets
- Access control systems
- Backups data encryption
- Keys and passwords from internet accounts
- Multi-factor authenticaton
Use either 3DPass mobile wallet or pass3d CLI tool for Linux to generate your password out of 3D object. The mobile wallet is equiped with the feature of 3D-object-wallet creation.
Given the fact that 3DPass is an open source and non-profit project, meaning anyone can add to development, there is an eco-system scheme (exposed down below) representing general functional elements:
- 3DPass NODE
The Ledger of Unique Things Layer 1 blockchain Node implementation. Based on Substrate framework.
- Pass3d toolkit
- Object recognition algorithms integration (Grid2D and others)
This toolkit consists of stable recognition algorithms used for identification of objects (3D objects and others, learn more >> ). Since the recognition technology is what the digital transformation process of any object is beginning from, and the result of which would always be its HASH ID, it implies every application, integrated into 3DPass eco-system, to have Pass3d toolkit implemented.
- Proof of Scan protocol
The consensus logic, using Pass3d recognition toolkit, that allows network participants to agree upon the state of the blockchain. Hybrid: PoW + PoA GRANDPA deterministic finality , Algorithm: Grid2d.
- 3DPass Web 3.0 wallet
Desktop users and IoT labs integration
- Mobile wallet
Smartphone and tablets users integration, object recognition and its tokenization
- Smart contracts toolkit
- Substrate smart contract tools using ink, a Rust-based embedded domain specific language (eDSL) for writing WebAssembly smart contracts. Learn more about how it compares to Solidity. As well, it allows unmodified EVM code to be executed on 3DPass blockchain. Some special Substrate features are designed to closely emulate the functionality of executing contracts on the Ethereum mainnet within the 3DPass network.
- IPFS storage
Decentralized storage for assets
Remote Procedure Call provides some capabilities that allow blockchain users to interact with the network. The NODE provides HTTP and WebSocket RPC servers. Follow these guidelines set up the wss API endpoint.